Intra-dependent — A reworking of the term interdependent, which replaces the prefix inter- (between two things) for the prefix intra- (within a single thing). My use of “intra-dependent” is based on Karen Barad’s similar “intra-action,” and aims to communicate that all things within the universe can be considered part of a single entity.

Lepton — Subatomic particles that do not respond to the “strong force,” with charges of +1, 0, or -1. The most common lepton is the electron.

Monad — Defined by philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in his book The Monadology as soul-like entities essential to all natural objects in the universe. He believed that all monads proceed along a predetermined course, and all experiences and perceptions of living entities are byproducts of the interactions of monads. Unlike atoms, Leibniz believed that monads did not combine to form matter, and that each natural object consisted of a single, unique monad.

Newtonian Physics — The physical laws describing how forces act on matter developed by Sir Isaac Newton in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Also known as “classical mechanics.""

Ontological — Relating to ontology, the area of philosophy that attempts to understand what it means to “be.”

Particle — Infinitesimal objects such as atoms, protons, and electrons with defined properties such as spin, charge, mass, and volume. Some particles, such as protons and atoms, are composite entities made up of smaller particles. These composite particles have a volume based on the relative locations of their component parts. Indivisible particles such as quarks and leptons are referred to as “point particles” which have no volume, but concentrate properties such as charge, spin, and mass at a specific point in space.

Quantum Entanglement — The interaction of two particles that causes one of more of their properties to become linked. When particles are not entangled, the characteristics of one have no bearing on the characteristics of another. When particles are fully entangled, the state of one particle will also reveal the state of its pair.

Quantum Physics — The branch of physics exploring the nature and behavior of subatomic particles. This term is often used interchangeably with “quantum mechanics” and “quantum theory.”

Quark — Subatomic particles with fractional charges (+⅔ and -⅓) that, in varying ratios, form neutrons, protons, and other “hadron” particles.