Video media in which artificial intelligence technology has been used to replace one figure's face with another. Popular examples of deepfakes include a number of viral videos in which various actors’ faces have been swapped for that of Nicholas Cage. The word “deepfake” is a combination of the term “deep learning,” used in computer science to describe artificial intelligence training strategies modeled on human brain systems, and the common work “fake.”
Sackler Family —
A family of American and British billionaires, including all the descendants of Isaac and Sophie Sackler. In 1952, the family purchased Purdue Pharma, and as of July, 2015, the Sacklers remained the company’s sole owners. In addition to Purdue Pharma, the family owns and operates a number of pharmaceutical companies internationally. Between 1995 and 2007, the Mortimer D. Sackler family donated $7 million to the Guggenheim to ensure the production and named attribution of the Sackler Center for Arts Education.
A drug whose therapeutic effects and physiological impacts resemble those of opium, such as morphine, codeine, oxycodone, methadone, tramadol, and fentanyl. In medicine, opioids are used to sedate patients and relieve pain.
Substance Use Disorder —
Experts generally agree that this disorder is a disease affecting the brain resulting in an individual’s lack of control over their use of a mind-altering substance or action despite the harm such use causes. Repeated use of a substance can “hijack” the nervous system such that the person no longer has agency over their use habits—thus, the “disorder.” Generally—but not in all cases—individuals with SUD have genetic predispositions that become activated by exposure to substances, behaviors (such as gambling), and/or environmental stressors that drive an individual to seek psychological relief in the use of substances or behaviors.
Substance Dependency —
A physiological response to continuous administration of a substance that results in neurological adaptation to the presence of the substance within the body. Substance dependency results in a withdrawal upon the termination of the administration of the substance.